Hallucinogens are a class of drugs that cause profound distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality, otherwise known as hallucinations. While under the influence of hallucinogens, users might see images, hear sounds or feel sensations that seem to be real but aren’t.
Almost all hallucinogens contain nitrogen and are classified as alkaloids. Many hallucinogens have chemical structures similar to those of natural neurotransmitters (acetylcholine-, serotonin-, or catecholamine-like).
The most commonly used hallucinogens are:
Hallucinogens can be man-made, or they can come from plants or mushrooms or extracts from plants and mushrooms. Generally, they are divided into two types: classic hallucinogens (LSD) or dissociative drugs (PCP). Either type of hallucinogen can cause users to have rapid, intense emotional swings.
Some of the more common hallucinogens include:
Sometimes called hoasca, aya, and yage, ayahuasca is brewed from plants containing DMT along with an Amazonian vine that prevents the normal breakdown of DMT in the digestive system. It is usually consumed like tea.
Dimethyltryptamine, also known as Dimitri, is a natural chemical found in some Amazonian plant species, but it can also be chemically synthesized. It usually comes as a white, crystalline powder that is vaporized or smoked in a pipe or bong.
D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a manmade chemical made from ergot, a fungus that grows on certain grains. It is probably the most powerful hallucinogen available, producing hallucinations, changes in the way reality is perceived, and altered moods.
It comes as a white powder or clear liquid and has no color or smell. It can come in capsules, but most often comes on small squares of blotter paper or gelatin that users place on the tongue or swallow to take a “trip.”
The active ingredient in marijuana is delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, which acts on cannabinoid receptors found in brain regions that influence learning, memory, appetite, coordination, and pleasure.
THC is just one of more than 400 different active substances—and 60 different cannabinoid molecules—contained in marijuana. Widely used as a recreational and medicinal substance, marijuana has been found to cause paranoia or anxiety as well as hallucinations, especially in adolescents who use the drug regularly.2